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We all know that languages coming from the same language family generally share similar traits. That’s canonical for most language families. In our case, the Romance languages descend from Vulgar Latin and that is the reason why there are so many words that sound almost the same in all five languages (six – if you count in Latin). For example, the word “water” is “aqua” in Latin, “agua” in Spanish, “água” in Portuguese, “acqua” in Italian, “eau” in French and “apă” in Romanian. Except for French and Romanian, they are all similar. Still, as you were right to think, Spanish and Portuguese are the most alike. So yes, Portuguese is similar to Spanish, but how mutually intelligible are they? Let the Spanish vs. Portuguese battle begin!
Is Portuguese Spanish?
This is probably one of the most common language-related misconceptions. No, Portuguese is not Spanish, but they were both born in the Iberian Peninsula somehow isolated from the rest of the land by the Pyrenees so it’s only natural for them to resemble in a lot of ways. After all, there’s an almost 90% lexical similarity between the two – meaning that 90% of their words have a cognate (equivalent) in the other language.
So, naturally, if you speak one, you’ll probably understand a part of the second, but don’t count on being able to speak it fluently. Spoken Spanish and Portuguese are less mutually intelligible than their written forms. In other words, on paper, the two languages look very similar and speakers of either language can generally read the other language without too much struggle. But when it comes to the spoken forms, or the phonology, things get a bit more complicated as the pronunciation is more different than you’d expect. However, it is said that Portuguese speakers typically understand spoken Spanish better than Spanish speakers understand spoken Portuguese.
Let’s look at some examples to help you better understand the similarities and/or differences between the two languages.
- English: “Are there any interesting sights that we can visit?”
- Spanish: ¿Hay algún lugar interesante al que debamos ir?
- Portuguese: Há algum lugar interessante que possamos visitar?
- English: “Where do you recommend I eat?”
- Spanish: ¿Dónde me recomiendas que coma?
- Portuguese: Onde você me recomenda para comer?
- English: “I have booked a room.”
- Spanish: He reservado una habitación.
- Portuguese: Eu reservei um quarto.
Quite similar, aren’t they? But remember: that does not make them the same language. Words like información (Spanish) and informação (Portuguese) or carro (Spanish) and carro (Portuguese) may look the same, but they sound different. While the Spanish carro is pronounced the same way it is written (with the strong double r), in the Portuguese carro, the double rr is pronounced using what is known as a voiceless fricative or a guttural r. So “r” is – only in some cases – the Portuguese equivalent of the Spanish “j” and are both pronounced using the “h” sound.
Spanish vs. Portuguese: False friends
Unsurprisingly, Spanish and Portuguese share a lot of cognates (words from different languages that look and sound similar and even share the same meaning), but they also share a lot of “false friends” or false cognates (words that look and sound the same and might share a common origin, but have different meanings). So it would be best if you would not get ahead of yourself in trying to guess the meaning of a new word that looks similar to a word you already know. Crazy misunderstandings like being pregnant instead of embarrassed can happen when you least expect it! (If you are not familiar with this cognate -> the Spanish “embarazada” is similar to the English “embarrassed”, but funnily enough it translates to “pregnant” in English.)
Here are some examples of the most common “false friends” from Spanish and Portuguese to help you avoid potentially embarrassing situations:
- pelado – translates to “skinned” or “peeled” in both languages, but colloquially changes its meaning to “having a shaved head or new haircut” in Spanish and “being naked” in Portuguese. You wouldn’t want to mix those two, wouldn’t you?
- while in Spanish, largo means “long” and ancho means “wide”, in Portuguese, largo means “wide” and longo means “long”. That sounds like a headache, doesn’t it?
- polvo – means “octopus” in Portuguese and “dust” in Spanish
- you already know that the Spanish (estar) embarazada means “(to be) pregnant”. Well, the same as English, Portuguese translates (estar) embaraçada to “(to be) embarrassed” or “(to be) entangled” so be careful with this one (again!)
- exquisita means “exquisite” or “delicious” in Spanish and esquisita (notice the “s” that takes the place of the “x”) means “weird” in Portuguese. A letter can truly change everything…
- “Red” is rojo in Spanish, but Portuguese roxo breaks the “Romance” norm and translates to “purple”. The Portuguese “red” is vermelho.
Other notable differences
At this point, we already settled that although very similar, Portuguese and Spanish are also different in terms of pronunciation and false cognates. Besides, there are also differences given by the area in which the language is spoken. Brazilian Portuguese is different from European Portuguese and Latin American Spanish is different from European Spanish. And as we already mentioned, behind that there are entire centuries of rich history and different influences. It’s nothing but fascinating!
But before you go, here are four more major differences between the two languages we should not overlook:
- while in Spanish both yo and me are used to express the singular form of the first person “I”, in Portuguese only eu is used;
- ñ in the Spanish alphabet becomes nh in Portuguese, so España or Spain is Espanha in Portuguese;
- while in Spanish you have to use muy before adverbs and adjectives and mucho before a noun or after a verb, in Portuguese you just use muito;
- while Portuguese speakers tend to use a casa dela to express possession, the Spanish speakers just say su casa as you probably already know from the well-known expression Mi casa es su casa;
The bottom line is that Spanish and Portuguese are indeed different, but also similar. So, if you already speak Portuguese, learning Spanish will certainly become way easier and vice-versa. You’ll soon discover that even a small resemblance between words like “hello” in Spanish and “hello” in Portuguese will make a huge difference for your learning process.
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